Monday, May 30, 2011

Sourdough Stories by L. Chalykoff from @MacBrideMuseum

Just got my copy of Sourdough Stories, great reading! Learn more about the MacBride Museum of Yukon History on the museum's website.

Sunday, May 29, 2011

2011.05.16-IMG_2792The LOD-LAM summit is just a few more days away, I'm looking forward to some foggy, cooler weather, since it's been in the 90s here in Washington.

The meeting should be quite interesting. It will be run in the style of an unconference. The list of attendees is a pretty much world-wide list of great people. There are lots of people that I know (including those from my own personal Wayback machine, yes, you Richard Urban), but even more that I follow on Twitter or elsewere on the InterToobz that I'm excited to meet for the first time in person (I'm calling out Adrian Stevenson, Mia Ridge, Mathias Schindler, Perian Sully, just to pick four at random). You can find the whole list of participants here.

Also there will be a good representative group from the recent Global Interoperability and Linked Data Workshop in Amsterdam (see my reports here and here), including:


My Smithsonian colleague, Effie Kapsalis will be there and that powerhouse from the Powerhouse Museum, Luke Dearnley is coming in from Australia.

Follow the meeting on Twitter hashtag #lodlam.

Freedom 7 space capsule

At the US Naval Academy

Annapolis harbor tour

And US Naval Academy

Starbucks #748, Annapolis, MD

Dock St.

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Friday, May 27, 2011

A whirlwind library & museum tour of the Netherlands, Leiden, Amsterdam, Den Haag

"In the port of Amsterdam
There's a sailor who sings
Of the dreams that he brings
From the wide open sea
In the port of Amsterdam
There's a sailor who sleeps
While the river bank weeps
To the old willow tree"
That, of course, is Jacques Brel, I'm afraid I could only come up with a brief haiku for my trip to Amsterdam:
Data flows in rings
In the port of Amsterdam
Bridges, links, people

Overall, a very successful trip. Met many new people, caught up with some old friends, and got to know some people much better. Flickr pictures here.

Friday, May 13, 2011
2011.05.14-IMG_2555Took the WMATA bus from Rosslyn to IAD. Easy trip, checked in, stopped in at the lounge for a bit. Flight delayed about an hour waiting for a connecting flight from Florida. Uneventful flight, in-flight map was broken and only showed a flight from LHR to ORD.

Had a chicken and rice dish and then later, a light breakfast.

Saturday, May 14, 2011
Landed at AMS and zipped through immigration and customs. A bit confused in the station for a bit, but soon found the train station and figured out how to buy a ticket. Found the train platform and soon on my way to Leiden.

2011.05.14-IMG_2571Got to the train station there, but took the wrong exit and wandered out and around the station. Soon found the Marienpoel Hotel. The desk staff were there and I was checked in and up the lift to Room 9. Unpacked and then headed out to find some lunch.

Wandered around for a bit and saw some sites. Bought a juice and carry out oude kaas sandwich to walk around with. Walked over to Naturalis and saw the exhibitions, including their dodo collection. Spent a while there and then did a little more touring, including the Pieterskerk (the Pilgrim Church) which is now a events hall and was being used to set up for the Leiden Marathon.

2011.05.14-IMG_2622Headed back to the hotel and found Chris who'd arrived a bit earlier (sans luggage). We did some touring, including the Hooglandes Kerch and climbing up to the De Burcht (the Citadel). Went to diner at a nice spot called "Fresh and Fast" (had a good lamb curry); stopped off for a glass of wine on the way back to the hotel.

Sunday, May 15, 2011
Woke up late, but had a lot of free time built in. Headed to a cafe for breakfast with Chris. Had a long, slow, European style breakfast at De Bruine Boon, coffee, bread, cheese. Finished up an walked over to Hortus Botanicus, the oldest botanical garden in Europe. A very nice garden, and greenhouse with carnivorous plants. A number of the plants were brought back or cultivated by the famed botanist, Clusius.
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Finished up at the Hort. Bot. and went to the V&D department store so Chris could pick up some clothes (no luggage yet). Left, and ran into the Leiden Marathon (or half marathon?) and walked slowly back to the hotel, grabbed our bags and back to Leiden Central Station for the train to Amsterdam.

We thought we had the right train, but for whatever reason, the train stopped in Haarlem. And stayed there. The couple across from us told us the train was stopped and that we'd have to take a bus. Grabbed out stuff and out the statio to the bus. On the bus, drove past a windmill, and off to Amsterdam. Or not, bus stopped at Amsterdam Sloterdijk (South station?) and we were back on a train. Minutes later, we pulled into Amsterdam Central.
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Light rain, but we walked the few blocks down to the Inntel Hotel and checked in. Dropped off bags (Chris' luggage had arrived) and headed to lounge. In a few minutes, most of the DPLA group arrived and we had drinks and made witty and highly intellectual conversation.
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After a bit, we headed out for our group dinner at Cote Ouest Cafe Restaurant. More witty and intellectual discussion while we had goat cheese and other things; since it's May in Europe, it was asperagus season and hence, I needed to have the asperagus, ham, potatoes, and grated egg. Quite good!
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Left the restaurant and a few of us peeled off to stop in at one of the many English/Irish pubs that seem to dot Amsterdam. Conversation was more technical now, but still witty.

Took a turn around the neighborhood a bit before heading back to the hotel for bed.

Monday, May 16, 2011
Rainy, rainy day. Had breakfast in the hotel with various combinations of the DPLA group and then we re-grouped for a walk to the main library of the University of Amsterdam for our meeting. Had a bit of a cat-herding adventure, but soon hit the road for the 15 minute walk to the meeting. See blog post for the report of the meeting.
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After the meeting, a small group, spearheaded by the Harvard Innovation Lab team, led us towards the night's dinner spot, with a strategic stop first at the Cafe Otten. We celebrated the Amsterdam win over Liverpool, but headed out to make another stop at a place with outdoor seating and wifi.

Over a platter of meats, cheese, and spring rolls, everyone pulled out a tablet or laptop and started doing work or showing projects to the group.
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Shut down the gadgets and headed over to the dinner spot, Flo Brassierie. Again, since it is aperagus season, I had the same Flemish Asperagus (but it wasn't quite as good). Table talk was, of course, witty, intellectual, and focused on important issues such as captive panda breeding programs. Notes from the meetings here.

A long day, so back to the hotel and to bed.

Tuesday, May 17, 2011
Again, breakfast at the hotel with DPLA folk and then a much drier walk to the meeting (see day two blog post). Meeting adjourned after some good wrap up and then a smaller group of us caught a tram to Amsterdam Central for the train to Den Haag. Breezed right into Den Haag and across th street to the National Library (the KB) for meetings with staff from the Europeana project (see Europeana report).
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After the meetings, the group got split up, but most of us made the same train and we were soon back in Amsterdam. Took a break to rest up at the hotel and then headed for Indrapura for a huge and tasty rice table (Indonesian tapas). After dinner, grabbed another tram to head back towards the Central Station where we had a canal tour boat waiting for us. The boat for just for our hardy band of 10 or so (we lost one classicist to geography) and captained by a non-Enlish speaker. Everyone was beat by then and it was getting late and dark. As we motored through the canals, we would be shaken from our nodding by a shouted "Koffeehuis!" or "Bags for the ladies!" or more commonly, rapid-fire Dutch (see blog post). An hour later, the weary group headed back to the hotel.

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Wednesday, May 18, 2011
Another breakfast with the diminishing group at the hotel before heading out with Chris for an appointment at the Stedlijk Museum Library (in its temporary quarters in the Sloternijk part of town). We cabbed over and had a great tour/visit to the facility (see blog post on library visit). Left my key in the electrical slot, so I had to get a new one at the front desk.
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We walked back to the Amsterdam Sloternijk station, pas the Reed-Elsevier headquarters (see blog post). Jumped on the train (after a Starbucks to go) and were soon back in Amsterdam.
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Did a bit of sightseeing, going past the packed Anne Frank House, and then headed to an outdoor cafe (yet another Irish pub) for some beers, a Dutch Snack Platter (meats and cheese and spring rolls) to do some grant writing and catch up on some other work.
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Finished up and then strolled up to the museum district, past the Rijksmuseum and Van Gogh Museum. Stopped in at the gift shop of the House of Bols (gin and other liquors) and picked up some gifts. Strolled back to the Centrum through the antiques district. Chris and I were planning on meeting up with Maura and Rebekah at their new hotel, and after some wandering around found them. We headed to the lobby bar and spent an hour or so working on planning and agenda building for the next meeting. Rebekah retired and we three went to dinner at a fine Italian spot, Bussia (see blog post).

Said our farewells and back to various hotels and bed for flights the next day.

Thursday, May 19, 2011
AMS to IAD. Up early, already packed the night before. Stopped in for the hotel breakfast, no one else from the group around. Took a short walk around the neighborhood in a light rain and then back to get my bag.

Walked to the Central Station, got a ticket, found my train and zipped to Schipol. Made my way to and through the airport, checked in, droppped back, through immigration and found the gate. Made a short stop at the lounge for some coffee and wifi; did a litle bit of duty free shopping and then to the gate. Through security and onto the plane.

Had an emtpy seat for a bit, but some switching was done to accomodate a small child.
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Flying over England and near Ireland, the first meal was served. I went with the pasta and it was fine. Worked for a while on some odds and ends and then read.

A visit to the Stedelijk Museum library, May 18

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I had the pleasure to meet with Michiel Nijhoff, Head of Library/Collection Registration at the Stedelijk Museum and received a tour of the collection (currently in a temporary off-site location while the main museum is being renovated). Nijhoff also showed the online system that manages the library, archive, and museum collections as well as the digitization program for the archives collection.

It was very interesting to see how the three LAM (library/archive/museums) collections all intermingled.

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Monday, May 23, 2011

It's all about the Benjamin, Benjamin Franklin and the DPLA

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Ben Franklin, Old Post Office
Washington, DC
I'd like to follow on Gosia Stergios' blog post inspired by the recent DPLA meeting in Amsterdam with a few comments of my own. These also follow on the "forking" discussion covered by Library Journal. You can see my notes from the meetings here, here and here.

On my way to the Amsterdam meeting, I stopped in Leiden, also the first stop of the Pilgrims - a decade long stop - before they eventually landed in the New World and founded the Plymouth Colony. After the meeting began, it was a short mental leap for me from the Pilgrims to the founding of the nation and the early motto of the United States, as still found on the Great Seal, E pluribus unum, "Out of many, one". This, I believe, is the goal of the DPLA. To create the great American digital library, one that both celebrates the component parts of all its constitute library contributors from across the country, but at the same time, becomes something greater than the sum of its parts.

And with this thought, who better to take on the role of patron of our DPLA then Benjamin Franlkin? We're all familiar with the quote attributed him at the signing of the Declaration of Independence, "We must, indeed, all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately." I think this Franklin statement is a good expression of why we need to put aside the "public" vs. "academic" debate and move forward with a united front on the DPLA. Academic, or public, there are large forces loose in the world that have no concern for the values and traditions the American library (writ large) has created.

And what are these forces? Eric Hellman, in his post, "Hachette at the Tipping Point" on his Go to Hellman blog, quotes from an interview with David Young, Chairman and CEO of Hachette Book Group that helps put these challenges into perspective:
"If you just rewind the clock five, even ten years, the negotiations that one had with with Barnes and Noble, or WH Smith or Waterstones seemed like the most challenging things in the world, you were entering a G8 summit or something, and now they appear like a vicar's tea party compared with the people with whom we now regularly deal. Massive companies, Amazon, Apple, Google, and in fact last year was a tipping point for our company, because 50% of our net revenues were made through outlets that were not invested in us. Companies like Walmart and Costco and all the others you can think of, not directly invested in our business. And I think that was a big moment and it means you're having to deal with people who think about books in a way totally different from the way Barnes and Nobles regards books. Every retailer who does sell books understands that they drive traffic into their stores, I have no doubt that's why Walmart and Target and Costco love them so much, but they do tend to cream off the top."
In this environment, there is an even more apt Franklin quote, "Join, or Die" (from the political cartoon first published in his Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754), that informs the neccessity of a DPLA at this point in time. Instead of the parochial infighting and debates about the relevancy of "The Republic of Letters" to the denizens of Main Street, we should look towards building the appropriate digital library FOR America at this pivotal time in history.

And that's why I like to think that this really is all about the Benjamins. Or Benjamin, as in Franklin. Franklin was the first new American. The first to carry a gravitas that the old world of Europe would respect. Scholar, inventer, postermaster, printer, publisher, author, library patron, Founder. Franklin embodies all that we could hope for in a DPLA, from the scholarly pursuits that would capture the imagination of the intellectual salons of Europe while at the same time composing the folksy, Poor Richard quotes that would hang needle-pointed over mantlepieces across America.
"These libraries have improved the general conversation of the Americans, made the common tradesmen and farmers as intelligent as most gentlemen from other countries, and perhaps have contributed in some degree to the stand so generally made throughout the colonies in defense of their privileges."
"This library afforded me the means of improvement by constant study, for which I set apart an hour or two each day, and thus repair'd in some degree the loss of the learned education my father once intended for me. Reading was the only amusement I allow'd myself."
These quotes, from Franklin's Autobiography, show his understanding of the role of libraries in creating not only American Democracy and providing amusement in leisure hours, but also the transformative nature of libraries that makes them agents of change across a spectrum that ranges from the individual to the nation.

(Thanks to my colleagues and friends for stimulating conversation that helped me clarify these ideas, especially Chris, Maura, Rebekah, David, Rachel, Robert, Kim, Ed, Dan, and Lorcan)

Spargel, Santa Fe style

After many meals in the Netherlands with the amazing giant white spargel (or asparagus), when there was asparagus enchiladas on the special menu at Santa Fe Cafe (Arlington, VA), I had to get them. Very tasty!

Thursday, May 19, 2011

United 947: AMS to IAD

Gate G7

Glad you didn't die before you got old, happy birthday, Pete Townshend!

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Richmond, Surrey, UK
Not that 66 is old, still young, no indeed, still quite young for your generation! I've seen Pete only twice in person. The first time was in 1989 (July 6) with a few tens of thousands of my closest friends at one of the reunion concerts at RFK stadium in Washington, DC.

The next time was nearly 10 years later, in December 1998 when I was in Richmond (suburban London). Driving around the quaint, narrow and totally non-car friendly town center with my sister-in-law, we were cut off by a guy in a Jaguar. The move didn't do him any good though since he in turn was cut off and he was stuck off to our side. Hmmm. Yes, the nose, the long face, yes, I must say that all the best cowboys have Chinese eyes and yes, that is indeed Pete Townshend himself that is sitting there! Traffic started up again and off he zoomed!



Captain Kim, aboard the S.S. DPLA for an Amsterdam cruise

2011.05.17-IMG_2875 by martin_kalfatovic
2011.05.17-IMG_2875, a photo by martin_kalfatovic on Flickr.
There's nothing that they can't do at the Innovation Lab; here you see Captain Kim taking the helm of our might boat for an adventurous cruise in and around the canals of Amsterdam.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Fabulous dinner at Bussia in Amsterdam


Stumbled across this amazing fine Italian restaurant in Amsterdam. Had the four course meal:

1. Red perch
2. Pasta with squid ink
3. Rumpsteak with asperagus
4. trio of desserts

More photos here

A glimpse to Barad-dûr

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"...rising black, blacker and darker than the vast shades amid which it stood, the cruel pinnacles and iron crown of the topmost tower of Barad-dûr..."

Walking back from my visit to the Stedlijk Museum Library, I was crossing through darkest Mordor when, arising from the earth, was non other than then Barad-dûr. With no quest and only a small Fellowship with me, I went near, but not too near, and then continued on my way.

(Sorry Tolkien fans who arrived here - inside library joke)

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The Weinberger interviews, Frick and Freeland

While in Amsterdam for the DPLA meetings, David Weinberger has been recording podcasts with various participants, sorta "librarians and informaticians on the street" talks. Here's a couple of pictures of the interviews in progress. Not sure when they'll go live, but you can check here: Joho the Blog (he got me too, so mine will show up too).

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Tuesday, May 17, 2011

A visit the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB) in Den Haag, Netherlands

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Ed Summers (LC) and me at the KB
Had a chance to visit the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (aka the KB, aka De Nationale Bibliotheek van Nederland) in Den Haag today to meet with some staff of the Europeana project. Had a good meeting and got to see a bit of the building.

Meeting with staff from the Europeana project in Den Haag

2011.05.17-IMG_2847 by martin_kalfatovic
2011.05.17-IMG_2847, a photo by martin_kalfatovic on Flickr.
17 May 2011
DPLA meets Europeana

Europeana staff Attending:

  • Harry Verwayen, Business Development
  • Jan Molendijk, Technical Director
  • Annette Friberg, Aggregation and projects
  • Valentine Charles, Ingest and harvesting
  • Alyssa Ackermann, Ingest and projects

Harry Verwayen, Business Development
Overview of how Europeana was formed and some of the background and initial plans
18.7 million objects
1,500+ partner institutions

Value propositions of Europeana:
Users: trusted source
Providers: Visibility (bit of a battle here, is visibility use or is it clickbacks?)
Policy: Inclusion
Market: Growth

Moving more and more from portal development to APIs and linked open data.

Jan Molendijk, Technical Director
What is Europeana from a technical point of view?

- portal
- search engine
- metadata repository
- metadata aggregation factory
- metadata and software lab
- network organization
- great fun

Tech challenges include the fact they include library, archives and museums, and a/v formats

Annette Friberg, Aggregation and projects
Contend and Data Aggregation in Europeana

Working with about 21 projects across Europe (including BHL-Europe).

Created a Council of Content Providers and Aggregators, these have working groups (around user engagement, finiancia, eithical, tehcnical, and legal).

Valentine Charles, Ingest and harvesting
Overview of how the ingest and harvesting occurs from the various content providers and aggregators of Europeana.

Digital Public Library of America meeting, Amsterdam, day 2

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Below are my rough notes from the first day of meetings held around the Digital Public Library of America (meeting agenda). CAVEAT: These are on the fly notes and may not actually represent the ideas of the speakers.

Day 2

Interoperability for mining and research: full text
Josh Greenberg, Sloan, moderating

Multilinguality and semantic vs. sytactic interoperability
Repke deVries, EIFL

How does interoperability work in a multilingual world? DPLA should involve the language engineering community where language technology becomes an enabling tool.

Syntax > Semantics > Meaning > culture
Understanding oreign text = understanding semantics; can this be bridged through DPLA? Semantic interoperability is a hard nut to crack.

=====================================
Building a public research center for the HathiTrust Digital Library
Robert McDonald, Indiana University

A new program within Hathi to build research tools on top of the Hathi content, HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC)

Learn more at: www.hathitrust-research.org
Details about the advisory board will come out in the next few weeks.
$250K in initial funding for startup. Creating some theme collections around astronomy, Victorian literature, and influenza. Working on replication schemes between HathiTrust and the HTReseearch Center.

For short term, thinking about future collaborations with DPLA and Europeana.

Plans are for doing data mining of both the public domain materials as well as the copyrighted material. There will be data auditing tools that will enable researchers to work with HTRC and not have to deal with the multiple content providers to HT/HTRC.

=====================================
Deep Research: What does a Digital Public Library of America supportD
Greg Crane, Tufts/Perseus Project

What are patrons doing and using in libraries?

Discussed how there is so much material for DPLA that will come from different languages and cultures. Gave an example of te Alpheos project that gives English/Greek translations with augmented language tools.

More examples from the world of education where there are students translating Classical texts that have not before been translated.

Another example from the University of Cairo about the classics program which is focused on how the Classical world was re-introduced to the West via Arab scholars.

Would like to see DPLA work on doing cross content anaylsis that will enable you to do things like look a mass texts from different years to see what was happening when and where.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Meeting Discussion / Summary / Next Steps

John Palfrey
Five takeaways:
- interoperability of DPLA with other projects, e.g. Europeana
- deal with risk management and licensing issues
- importance to linked data, as open and interoperable as possible
- "projects coulds and shoulds", persistance, support other open data projects, support the work of language translation projects, support use cases around life-long learning, support big text humanities projects
- Make a stand on open data

Workstreams:
- tech dev
- legal
- business models
- content and scope
- governance
- research uses
- audience and participation

Timeline:
- beta sprint invitation to officially go out soon (due September 1; DC public meeting October 1)
- Formal launch in October
- 18 months later, Spring 2013, unveiling of the prototype

Monday, May 16, 2011

Digital Public Library of America meeting, Amsterdam

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2011/05 Amsterdam/DPLA, a set on Flickr.
Below are my rough notes from the first day of meetings held around the Digital Public Library of America (meeting agenda). CAVEAT: These are on the fly notes and may not actually represent the ideas of the speakers.


Day 1
15 May 2011

Introductions
Maura Marx (OKC)
Lucie Guibault (U of Amsterdam)


John Palfrey (Harvard)
Discussion of topics; one of the key things is interoperability; system built must be interoperable in both a technical sense, but also theoretically and at the institutional level. Not only interoperate within the US, but also with other large national projects.

==================================
 Dan Brickley (U of Amsterdam)
Quick overview of some of the buzz terms and words related to linked data.
- linked data
- semantic web
- RDF

 RDF first appeared in 1997 and was a way of showing that allowed documentation of content (metadata). First started during the time of the browser wars and fell astray of MSFT and Netscape agendas. Went underground with W3C until about 2000. DARPA then did some funding to bring it back out of hiberbation and began to be used in academe. Tim Berners-Lee then threw out the "semantic web" concept to describe the thinking behind it.

The "semantic web" concept was perceived as too academic and not really something for building practical things. Too much of a research field. A group of people in around 2005 began to do things like "friend of friend," etc. Tim Berners-Lee in a 2005 redefined things as linked data with the following priciples:

- use URIs as name for things
- use HTTP as the identifiers
- use URIs that have useful information that is machine friendly
- include links to other URIs

How does the abstract world of things and data become refactored into the real world of specific things and linkages. Over the past few years, the work has been to see what are the appropriate levels of descirption of things.

 What's the relationship of ontologies and definitions of properties and relationships. So now you can say things like "a car is not a book".

How can you share various descriptions about the same things that use differnt descriptions? So, from the book world, FRBR provides some of the context for doing that via ontologies.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

First Panel
Linked Data and Interoperability in Europeana
Moderator: Martin Kalfatovic

Paul Keller, Kennisland
Project part of Eurpeana Connect.

Spent that last two years working on a licening framework.

As you work with IP issues, you'll find that libraries are easy, archives less so, museums are the hardest.

Copyright is one of the complex and descisive issues around sharing data. Copyright is supposed to deal with the works and not with the metadata. The factual data should be out there, shareable, and linkable. BUT, this isn't always so.

For (cultural heritage organizations (CHO), they don't always have the rights to the things, but they do have it over the data. Since they do have rights over the metadata, they feel that there should be ways to monetize the metadata. CHOs don't want to put the metatadata out for commercial purposes, they don't monetize it, but are afraid that someone else might exploit it. Europeana is trying to get partners to accept CC0 rights statements and are making progress.

Structured discussions around "risks and rewards" at Europeana. This has helped to form the discussion and clarify issues for participants. Ask partners what the risks are and define them. Don't confront institutions with blunt statement, but work them with them to define successes. Fears includes loss of control and loss of revenue.

Question about what is "safe, low-res" metadata as a gateway drug. Answer is that there could be defined elements that are simple and basic that could be used (quick description, author, etc.)
 ==================================

Antoine Isaac, University of Amsterdam
Description of the Europeana Data Model (EDM).

Looks a lot like a Dublin Core record. Very static and forces interoperability on the data that is not inherent in the data.

The new EDM is going to be richer with more functionality.

Goal of EDM is to provide references to digitized content, so must include links to the objects on the partner sites.

Lots of discrepencies of data between types of institutions. Since a key goal is to initiate services on the data, how can the data be re-served for other purposes?

Since the current data records are very flat, you might get all types of data merged into one record (about the object, about the digized version, about the creator of the object). New EDM will try and tease these out so that you have "stuff and description about the stuff."

How do you deal with different descriptions about the same things (e.g. books); how do you merge these records (o dare you?) and how do you maintain provenance of the metadata?

The EDM must also be able to serve up the data at various levels of granularity.

These different requirements are all best met though linked data/semantic web systems.

The EDM has been a very collaborative process and has taken about 2-3 years and is part of a EUropeana work package that came from many different types of institutions. It has been an open process, but NOT as open as everyone would have hoped.

==================================
 Stefan Gradmann, Humboldt University Berlin
 Did a quick recap of the LOD and a coverage of the Tim B-L original proposal for the WWWW.

Basic concept of linked data is to extend linking in scope, description, etc.

 RDF allows you to make statements about things on the web.

[joke about how Europeana is obsessed with the Mona Lisa - each presenter used it in their talk]

To extend the web in scope, you can use the web to link things that are descriptions to things themselves (digital manifestations).

Certain goals:
- creating a data commons
- how do you move from QUANTITY of data to QUALITY of data?
- LOD2 project is an EU funded project that is about integration of data (8.53 m Euro budget); hopes to form a registry of LOD; using some interesting tools to allow you to move from database structures to RDF- see new book by Chris Spitzer & Heath on Linked Data

Be aware of the discrepency between Linked Data and Linked Open Data. Can you have LD without it being LOD? Technically, yes, but to fully involve the benefits of LD, it must be LOD.

Discussion
Stefan: "Dirt in the cloud"

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Second Panel
Interoperable Discovery: Bibliographic Metadata
Rufus Pollock, Open Knowledge Foundation

Open Bibliography at OKF. Interest started about 7 years ago

Biblio data is a platform, not a commodity; we want to build it, not sell it. In this context, open data means:

Open = Freedom for anyone to use/reuse/redistribute/even commercial
(opendefinition.org ; opencommons.org)

Open is fundamental to:
- interoperability
- scaling
- building the ecosystem

These ideas are not creative commons which has a series of sometimes overlapping and conflicting rules.

Interoperability and scaling
- closed data doesn't scale
- to scale you need t componentize
- we need to reunited separated data

Open data ecosystem:
- many minds principle
- best things to do with your data will be thought of by someone else
- you will think of the best things to do with other peoples' data

JISC penBib and Bibliographica (bibliographica.org), a rapid-prototype of Europeana in miniature unintentionally)

In the world of zero cost for reproducability, matching is king

David Weinberger mentioned the "Library Cloud" project that hopes to expose certain types of library data not usually displayed (circultation, hold, and reserve info, and search information).

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 Lorcan Dempsey, OCLC
The Virtual International Authority File

Overview of VIAF, encouraged people to look at Trove (from Au).

Walked people through how VIAF worked. Showed how it is the combination of the authority files from national sources (DNB, LOC, BnF, OCLC); also puts this data "into the web" as opposed to just a database.
VIAF data available via a number of formats, including RDF, MARC, native SML; includes links to national libraries as well as Wikipedia.

Future of VIAF:
- more source files
- more types of names
- become an OCLC service
- used in WorldCat
- ISNI and Orcid (projects looking into names)
- Will remain open

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 Ed Summers, Library of Congress
Issues of data sychronization

Talked about a number of problems, issues, and solutions to synchronizing data across different systems.

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Jonathan Rothman
Bibliographic Metadata & the HathiTrust

Quick overview of how HathiTrust aggragates metadata. Attempts to match metadata to objects, but the first record in wins; matching done on OCLC number.
U of Michigan provides a RSS feed of public domain material from Google scans.

 OCLC is a consumer of the data and uses the files to derive digital master records from HathiTrust materials.

Also has the ability to export individual metadata records as RDF output (just add .rdf to the end of the search term).

Continuing to work with OCLC on deduplication; would like to rely on WorldCat to get records from partners, but no method to handle volume information.

 Working on a system with CDL to develop a tool that will allow for clustering of records.

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 John Weise, University of Michigan
Fulltext search and opportunities to extend discovery

HathiTrust will always have its own search and access points to ensure discovery and access; recall and precision are critical repository funcations.

Also wants to have a presence in where users are (Summon, Google, etc.)

Facts:
- 8 m volumes
- 2.2 m in public domain
- 209 k serial titles
- 4.7 million book titles
- 1.2 b pages
- 7 tb of OCR
- 4.5 tb index
- 1.7 trillion words (dirty OCR)

Metadata Search Interoperability Conundrum
- federated searches have weaknesses
- unified index (e.g. Summon) is powerful, but requires 3rd party access to metadata, or providing pre-built indexes

Full text searches have these same problems, but with the added dimension of scale and copyright (since the content is actually part of the index).


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Third Panel
Interoperable use: licensing frameworks and rights language
John Palfrey

Paul Keller, Kennisland
Marking the public domain

Overview of the creation of the Europeana document that attempts to clarify the public domain.

Creative commons has an option, with too many caveats, Public Domain Mark 1.0

See Public Domain Calculator: www.outofcopyright.edu

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John Weise, HathiTrust
Determing rights and opening access in HathiTrust

Some more overview of HathiTrust, seeking to make all legally responsible uses of the collection as easy as possible.

Try to make rights holders have as much information as possible to manage rights.

Copyright Review Management System
- web-based application
- 18 staff and 4 institutions (IU, UM, UMinn, UWisc)
- attempting to ID items in the public domain
- goal is to expand to non-US works

HathiTrust feels:
- copyright reform is neccessary, esp. around duration of protection
- libraries don't make enough use of fair use
- orphan works legislation is probably not needed
- must identify orphan works as part of the cataloging process

Best case for in-copyright
- ideally, we locate copyright holders, and ask their permission
- most people say yes

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Lucie Guibault, U ofAmsterdam
Working with licensing frameworks

Lucie discussed the role of licensing content at a continent-level. Not going with fair use (which doesn't exist in Europe), but extended collective licensing.

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Paola Mazzucchi, ARROW
Bridging gaps: ARROW Rights information infrastructure

Rights clearing project for Europeana.

What does it do?
- Comprehensive system to facilitate rights management for digitization projects.
- Up and running in Germany, France, Spain, and United Kingdom
- Alliance between libraries, publishers, authors and commercial services
- Acts as an interoperability facilitator across domains and between public and privte initiatives
- enables simplified solutions fo the licesning of certain categories of works
- suppors due diligence searches in automated, streamlined ways

Goal is to create digital libraries w/out black holes

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Urs Gasser, Bermkan
Concluding remarks

Various thoughts on how to do licensing of materials with interoperability issues in mind.

Three general observations:
- how do we avoid using old metaphors that might not still be relevant
- there are many organizational, structural, legal blockages to DPLA (antitrust, unfair competition, etc.)
- be prepared a to what the communication strategy is to the public at large that will make DPLA relevant to appropriate stakeholders.